EXISISTING IN EXISTENCE

In my last article, I wrote that the definition of God depends on the mind that defines it.  The definition changes with the attainment of knowledge.  The gunas (nature) and attributes coin the name for that divine form. 

In this article, I would like to share with you the definition of God according to Advaita Vedanta.  The primitive form of bhakti makes us to believe that God is a person in the heaven, who is the dispenser of our karmic results, and he will be pleased if we worship him and punish us if we disobey him.  Well, this type of bhakti will help our mind to get purified; however, our knowledge of the divine principle must mature beyond this initial stage.

Advaita Vedanta is a very sophisticated philosophy.  According to Advaita Vedanta the name given for that universal, infinite divine principle is Brahman.  Let me take the support of the Taittriya Upanishad, second chapter (Brahmananda valli) first para to explain this concept.  It says, “The knower of Brahman becomes Brahman itself.  He who realizes Brahman attains the supreme”.  In the same verse it says, “Satyam, jnanam, anantham Brahman”, meaning Brahman is existence, knowledge and bliss.  Brahman means vast, infinite, unlimited.  Here vast, infinite, unlimited are not used as adjectives.  It is Brahman itself.  Vastness means without any limit.  Brahman has no limit that is why it is said as infinite and unlimited.  In sanskrit it said as anantha. 

First we will analyze that how Brahman is said as anantha.  In the worldly life (samsara), any object is limited by three factors.  It is limited by space (desa), time (kala), object (vastu).  For example, take this computer in which I am typing this article.  It is limited by space, time and object.  This computer occupies a certain space; in that way it is limited by space.  Whereas, Brahman is all pervading.  It has no limits.  There is no place without Brahman. 

 This computer has a manufacturing date and an expiring date.  It works well only during that period of time.  After that period, it automatically gets destroyed.  It exists between creation and destruction.  In that sense it is limited by time.  Whereas, Brahman is eternal, omnipresent; it always exists.  It existed before this creation and it will always exist.  The universe emerged from Brahman, it is existing in Brahman, after dissolution only Brahman will exist. 

 This computer has a form and a name.  No other object is known by this name; in that sense it is limited by object.  Any object is known by itself and not by any other object. The name gives an identity for this form; whereas, Brahman pervades all forms.  Nothing in this universe is apart from Brahman.  Therefore, Brahman is not limited by object (vastu). 

Therefore, Brahman is not limited by space, time and object and hence it is said as ananda, infinite and non-dual.  There cannot be two infinites and hence Brahman is non -dual.  Brahman is sarva vyapi (all pervading), nitya (eternal) and ananda (infinite). 

Next, we will analyse that how Brahman is said as satyam (Reality).  Brahamn is existence itself.  Every object exists in the existence and no object exists apart from existence.  If I deny this existence, then it implies that I do not exist.  It is one continuous base of existence where there is no part or division.  Therefore Brahman is satya; Reality itself. 

Next, we will analyze that how Brahman is said as jnana (knowledge).  Any object in this world is limited by space (desa), time (kala) and object (vastu), which means that the knowledge about that object, is also limited.  Every object exists in Brahman.  Without intelligence we cannot have knowledge about an object.  That intelligence, which is pure consciousness, is Brahman itself.  If we realize Brahman then all the objects are known.  Therefore, knowledge is Brahman.

Brahman is pure consciousness, devoid of the mind.  We come across this state many times in a day like the gap between two thoughts, when our mind goes to an exalted state or in deep misery etc, for a moment we come across this state; but it goes unnoticed. 

Pure Consciousness is underlying in all the experiences in life.  Only thing is we have to own this fact.  Brahman is satyam, janana, ananda.  It is existence itself.  We are existing in that existence.

Who IS GOD

Who is God?

Is He the divine person up in the heaven and dispenser of our karmic results

Or Is He the person in his divine abode who favors us when we offer him and punish us when we do not offer him

Or Is He the deity we worship in the temples

Or Is He different from us

Or Are we existing in Him

Or is He existing in us;

Who is God in reality?

It might be a difficult question to answer; because all these ideas come and cloud our mind when we think about God and every point I quoted is true; only thing is they are the different levels of realization.  Definition of God depends on the mind that defines it.

Every religion begins with faith.  We believe that God is a person like us and has similar emotions and form like us.  It is true but our understanding must go beyond the elementary level of understanding God.  Worshipping God as a different person with divine form and interacting with God in that level is not the goal of life.  We must improve our understanding and must realize God as the universal Consciousness.  There is no grain in this universe without God.  He is present in every form and in the transcendental level.

Any form worship, chanting mantras, devotion, yoga, saguna meditation will help us purify the mind and prepare the mind for the next level of realization.  It is not the ultimate.  God must be realized as the truth in our self and in everything else.  He is the underlying Consciousness of all our experiences.  It is by His presence that we are able to see, hear, touch, speak, remember etc.  All our activities either good or bad are based on Him.  We act according to our karmic tendencies however all our acts are possible because of that underlying Consciousness.  What we say as God is the pure undivided Consciousness and it is showing its presence through our actions.  Just like electricity is present throughout the wire but we are able to realize its presence when we switch on the light.  Consciousness or in Vedantic terms Brahman is present everywhere, but we realize its presence through our actions.

The same point is emphasized in Kenopanishad in many ways.  It says that Brahman is different from the known and it is beyond the unknown.  The ultimate is beyond the known and unknown.  Upanishad says that worshipping God as another object or as deity means we are objectifying the universal Consciousness.  The presence of God is realized by the people who are either very devotional or people who lead ascetic life.  The concept of temples and deities came in to being just to make the layman feel the presence of God.  However, what turned out in the end is people started to believe that what they worship in temples as deities alone is God and they are unable to feel His universal presence. 

Upanishads differentiates the universal Consciousness that has form and attributes as saguna Brahman and its formless and attributeless nature as nirguna Brahman.  The pinnacle of every religion is the realization of God as the universal principle.  This is very clearly explained in the Kenopanisad chapter 1, verses 5,6,7,8,9.  Kenopanisad says, “Man cannot describe it beyond a certain limit.  Man cannot think about it, speak about it, see it, hear it, touch it or perceive it; but That by which a man thinks, speaks, sees, hears, touches, perceives etc, know that to be Brahman and not what people worship as an object”  Brahman is not an object to see it as separate from us or to search for it.  It is the Consciousness by which we perform all activities.  Every experience happens in life because of Brahman.  Upanishad is not against any form worship or rituals; however it says that it is not the ultimate. 

DIFFERENCE IN DEVOTION AND KNOWLEDGE IN THE THREE SMALL CHILDREN (PART 2)

In my last article I briefly explained the stories of three small children, Dhruva, Prahlad and Nachiketa, and their devotion and knowledge.  In this article, I explain the difference in their devotion (bhakti) and knowledge (jnana). 

Devotion (bhakti) and knowledge (jnana) of Dhruva

Dhruva and Prahlad were of same age, five years.  They both had the same guru, sage Narada.  In Dhruva, bhakti was induced by his mother, Sunithi.  She asked him to have unswerving devotion on Lord Vishnu so that his worldly desires will be satisfied.  The determination of that small child was remarkable.  At that very young age he went to the forest to meditate.  By his deep meditation the whole world was disturbed, and atlast Lord Vishnu appeared before him.  When the Lord gave boon to be the pole star, Dhruva accepted that boon; though he repented later and said that I must have asked for liberation as the boon.  Though Dhruva felt that himself, the Universe and the Lord are not different from each other, at one stage he said that he was unable to perceive the transcendental nature of the Lord.  Moreover, in the last phase of his life he took revenge on the yakshakas for killing his brother, fought a battle with the yakshakas, and killed many of them.  This implies that he viewed difference among the jivas and considered the yakshakas as different from him.  Later he stopped the battle by the advice from his grandfather Suyambhuva manu, and went to Badarikashrama to meditate and realize the true nature of the Lord.  Eventually, he attained the position as the star Dhruva.

Devotion (Bhakti) and knowledge (jnana) of Prahlad

Bhakti was inherent in Prahlad.  In his previous janma (birth), when he was in his mother’s womb, he received advice from sage Narada.  In that way, his guru was sage Narada.  He inherited devotional tendency from sage Narada.  From a very young age he was an ardent devotee of Lord Vishnu.  Even though his bhakti was opposed by his father, his mind was deeply attached to Vishnu bhakti, which made him not to feel the tortures inflicted by his father or his father’s attendants.  He had remarkable faith in Lord Vishnu, which made the Lord appear as Narashima

He saw no difference among the jivas and he felt that if I am to be liberated than all my fellow being, regardless of their karma, are to be liberated.  This very clearly shows that he saw no difference among the jivas.  Even when his father inflicted tortures on him he only saw his ignorance and he did not react in any way to his tortures.  This shows Prahlad’s faith in the Lord and his knowledge.  Though born in  an Asura family he only sought refuge in the feet of the Lord and did not aspire for any other worldly desires.  He was made as the ruler for the asuras by the Lord which he obeyed.  After killing Hiranyakashipu, it was Prahlad’s bahkti and love for the Lord made lord Narashimha calm from the spree of the Lord from erasing all the asuras.  After Prahlad praising the Lord with a beautiful hymn, the Lord remained calm and appreciated the young child Prahlad.

Devotion (Bhakti)  and knowledge (Jnana) of Nachiketa

Nachiketa went to the abode of Lord Yama to make his father’s words true.  There he was so adamant to see the Lord and receive teaching from him regarding Brahma vidya.  His discrimination and determination made the Lord to teach this profound vidya to this young child.  Therefore, determination with discrimination was very prominent in Nachiketa.  This made him a Brahmavid.

Therefore when one compares the devotion and knowledge of these three children, it is so natural and inherent in Prahlad.  The rest of them had a purpose to show their devotion and attain knowledge.  In my view, Prahlad was an exemplar of devotion and knowledge.

DIFFERENCE IN DEVOTION AND KNOWLEDGE IN THE THREE FAMOUS CHILDREN – PART 1

                                                 THE DIFFERENCE IN DEVOTION AND KNOWLEDGE

                                                 OF THE THREE FAMOUS CHILDREN – PART 1

We all know of the devotion and knowledge of the three famous children in the scriptures – Dhruva, prahlad and Nachiketa.  In this article with two parts, I would like to share with you the brief story of the three children and my view on this topic.

The story of Dhruva comes in fourth skanda, chapter eight of Srimad Bhagavata.  Child Dhruva belonged to a Kshatriya family.  His father was a king and his grandfather was Suyambhuva manu.  His mother was Sunithi and he was always insulted by his stepmother Suruchi.  On one particular day Dhruva’s father too kept silent when she insulted him, and this caused more pain in Dhruva and he ran to his mother Sunithi.  She advised him to have unswerving devotion on Lord Vishnu.  Taking her words seriously he left to the forest to meditate on Lord Vishnu.  He met sage Narada in the forest and the sage was surprised by the determination of the young child who was only five years of age.  By the advice of the sage, the young child Dhruva meditated on Lord Vishnu, saw the form of Lord Vishnu, and received the boon to be the Dhruva nakshatra, the pole star after his life time.

The story of Prahlad comes in the seventh skanda of Srimad Bhagavata.  Child Prahlad was also five years of age and he belonged to an Asura family.  He was the son of a famous asura, Hiranyakashipu.  Devotion to Lord Vishnu was inherent in that child and from a very young age he was an ardent devotee of Lord Vishnu.  His devotion to Lord Vishnu was unaccepted by his father because his father considered Lord Vishnu as his enemy.  His father inflicted tortures on this young child, but nothing affected Prahlad because all the time his mind was strongly attached to Lord Vishnu.  Prahlad had great faith in the Lord and to make Prahlad’s words true, Lord Vishnu appeared as Narashimha in the place (a pillar) where Prahlad believed that Lord would be there in that pillar too.  Lord Narashimha killed Hiranyakashipu and blessed Prahlad who had no other worldly desires than the refugee in the Lord’s feet.

The story of Nachiketa comes in the Kathopanishad.  The entire Upanishad is the teaching of Brahma vidya by Lord Yama, the guru of Nachiketa, to the young child.  Nachiketa belonged to a Brahmin family.  His father Vajasravasa, once performed a Yagna where the owner of the sacrifice had to give all he owed to others as offering.  But his father gave only the used and old things to others.  Even the cows he gave to Brahmins were very old.  Therefore to balance the mistake of his father Nachiketa asked his father, “To whom do you offer me?”  This irritated his father and he said, “To death I give you”.  To make his father’s words true, even though later he was dissuaded by his father, he went to the abode of Lord Yama.  There the attendants of the Lord made Nachiketa to wait outside the palace for three days without food or water.  With determination the young child waited outside for the Lord.  When Lord Yama arrived he was surprised by the determination of the young child and he offered him three boons because he waited for three days.  As the first boon Nachiketa asked, my father should be free from worry and anxiety for missing me and he should accept me without hesitation when I go back to him.  As the second boon he asked, a person coming to heaven must have a long stay in heaven.  Lord Yama immediately gave the two boons.  The Lord was surprised by the third boon Nachiketa asked because it was regarding Brahma vidya.  Nachiketa asked, “Some say that it exists and some say that it does not exist after death.  I want to know the truth from you, the lord of death”.  To test the child whether he was qualified for Brahma vidya, Lord Yama offered him worldly boons, which Nachiketa rejected and he was so adamant for Brahma vidya.  In the end, the lord as guru taught Brahma vidya to Nachiketa and Nachiketa became the knower of Brahman.

These are the very inspiring stories of the three small children who had remarkable power of determination, devotion and knowledge.  In the second part of the article I will share with you the difference in devotion and knowledge of these three children.

DIFFERENT GITAS IN HINDUISM – Part 3 (Gitas from Puranas)

               

In this article I would like to mention about the gitas mentioned in different puranas.

1. Agastya gita – Agastya gita comes in the Varaha purana.  Varaha purana is the conversation between Varaha murti (the avatar of Lord Mahavishnu) and Dharani (earth).  To one of the questions by Dharani, Varahamurti as answer quotes the Agastya gita, which was originally said by Sage Agastya.  This gita tells about the concept of moksha, the attainment of paramatma by the jivatma through devotion, renunciation and by the grace of God. 

2. Avadhuda gita – Avadhuta means ever-free.  Avadhuta gita means the song of the ever-free.  Avadhuta gita is the experience of the Avadhuta Dattatreya.  It is based on the non-dualistic philosophy.  Avadhuta gita is an independent treatise on Advaita vedanta.  It is also said as Vedanta sara.

3. Brahma gita – Brahma gita comes in the Brahma Purana. This gita praises Lord Shiva.  After the death of Sati, Daksha goes to Lord Shiva and praises his glories and the Lord blesses him.  These slokas are said as Brahma gita.

4. Devi gita – Devi gita comes in the Devi baghavata purana.  It is one among the eighteen puranas, where Devi is said as Brahman.  Devi gita tells about the supreme power of the divine mother.  She is both compassionate and at the same time very ferocious too.  Devi gita is the conversation between devi Parvati and her father Himavan, and she tells her father that she is the ultimate reality, Brahman.  She explains about the evolution, existence and dissolution.

5. Ganesha gita – Ganesha gita is from the Ganesha purana.  It has two sections.  The first is the upasana kanda, a section on devotion to Lord Ganesha.  The second section is the krida kanda, which tells about the divine leelas of Lord Ganesha.  Ganesha gita comes in the krida kanda.  It is the discourse of Lord Gajanana, an incarnation of Ganesha, to king Varenya.  The discourse is based on liberation.

6. Guru gita – Guru gita comes in the skanda purana.  It has 352 verses.  It is a famous gita in Vedanta philosophy.  It is a conversation between Lord Shiva and devi Parvati, where devi Parvati asks about the importance of guru, and the answer by Lord Shiva is the Guru gita.

7. Hanuman gita – Hanuman gita is the discourse of Lord Ram and devi Sita after their arrival back to Ayodhya, after defeating Ravana.  Lord Ram and devi Sita reveal their identity to Hanuman.  Lord Ram says that he is the all pervading, imperishable Brahman and devi Sita is the yoga maya existing in Brahman.   

8. Ishwara gita – Ishwara gita comes in the uttara vibhaga of the kurma purana.  It is the teaching of Lord Vishnu to Sage Narada.  Ishwara gita explains Ishwara, the creator as omnipresent, omnipotent and omniscient. 

9. Rama gita – Rama gita comes in the uttara kanda of Adhyatma Ramayana, authored by Veda Vyasa.  Rama gita is a dialogue between Lord Rama and his younger brother Lakshmana.  To one of the questions by devi Parvati, her consort Lord Shiva as answer retells the Rama gita.  The presenter of Rama gita is Lord Shiva.

There is another Rama gita in Jnana vasishta, Tattwa sarayana.  It is the dialogue between Hanuman and Sri Ram on jnana, bhakti yoga and vairagya.  It emphasizes the importance of knowledge and practice of good karmas.  It is based on monistic philosophy.               

10. Ramana gita – Ramana gita is not a traditional gita as taken from any puranas.  Ramana gita is the teachings of Shri Ramana maharshi who lived in the 20th century in a place called Tiruvannamalai, Tamil Nadu.  One of his disciples, Shri Ganapathi muni, recorded the answers given by Shri Ramana maharshi to nearly 43 questions posted by his devotees on Self enquiry and he brought it out as Ramana gita. 

11. Ribhu gita – Ribhu gita comes in the Shiva rahasya purana.  It is an upapurana based on Lord Shiva and saivite worship.  It has about 2000 versus.  It is a dialogue between Sage Ribhu and his disciple Sage Nidagha.

12. Shiva gita – Shiva gita is taken from the padma purana.  When Ravana took away devi Sita, Lord Rama in grief wandered in the forest.  Sage Agastya consoled Sri Ram and advised him to worship Lord Shiva.  Lord Shiva appeared before Lord Ram and taught him this gita.  The guru of Shiva gita is Lord Shiva and the disciple is Lord Ram.  Lord Shiva says in Shiva gita that the entire creation is the manifestation of the primordial being, himself.

13. Siddha gita – Siddha gita is from Yoga Vasishta.  Some siddhas assembled near the palace of king Janaka and they were singing the praise of Brahman and Atma.  Sage Vasistha quotes this gita to Sri Ram.

14. Surya gita – Surya gita is found in the Tattwa sarayana.  It is the teaching of the eternal teacher Dakshinamurthi to Lord Brahma about Brahman and its manifestations. 

15. Suta gita – Suta gita is from the skanda purana.  It comprises of the teaching about Brahman and maya tattwa.

16. Vallabha gita – Vallabha gita is also said as shodasha granthas, a collection of sixteen stotras of Shri Vallabhacharya.  Shri Vallabhacharya was one of the five main acharyas who propagated the Vaishnava Bhakti tradition of Hinduism and he is the founder of the pushti sect in Hinduism.  It is based on the philosophy of shuddha advaitam (non-dualism), which means that Brahman alone is real.  They do not accept the concept of maya.  Pushti sect believes that the Universe is not an illusion, but the natural emanation from God.  Jiva is a part of God (Krishna) and is identical with him.  Their main deity is Lord Krishna and attaining him is liberation.  As answers to his devotes questions, Shri Vallabhacharya wrote 16 granthas to help them in the path of devotion.  These granthas were later known as Vallabha gita. 

17. Vasishta gita – Vasishta gita is also knows as Yoga Vasishta.  It is an important work in Vedanta philosophy.  It is the advice given by Sage Vasishta to Lord Ram, when Sri Ram was in the dejected state of mind.  It comes in the uttara bhaga of Valmiki Ramayana.  It is also known as jnana Vasishta. It is a profound work in Vedanta with 32,000 versus.  The discourse of Sage Vasishta is based on the Reality, non-duality, manifestation and liberation.

18. Vibheeshana gita – Vibeeshana gita comes in the yuddha kanda of Ramayana.  It is a discourse between Lord Ram and Vibeeshana.  Vibeeshana asked Sri Ram that how he was able to win over the mighty Ravana; Sri Ram said that dharma, faith and good values will win in the end.  Sri Ram’s answer is said as Vibeeshana gita.

19. Vidya gita – Vidya gita comes in the Tripura Rahasya.  It is in the form of a story as said by Lord Dattatreya to Lord Parasuram.  Lord Dattatreya says that vidya, the highest wisdom is devi herself and she removes the fog of delusion and confers liberation through intelligence.

20. Yama gita – Yama gita was originally recited by Agni dev to Sage Vasishta.  It appears in Vishnu Puran, Agni Puran and Narashimha Puran.  It explains the nature of Self, the concept of Brahman and the ways to attain liberation.

21. Vyasa gita – Vyasa gita comes in the Brahma Puran. Brahma Puran was said by Lord Brahma to the Sages on mount Meru.  The Sages requested Lord Brahma to tell about the yoga that will help them to be free of miseries and later help them to unite with Paramatma; as answer Sage Vyasa recited the Vyasa gita, which explains the philosophy of non-dualism and samkya philosophy.

These are the different gitas in Hinduism.  In total there are more than 60 gitas in Hinduism other than the famous Baghavad gita.  Hope the three articles (Different gitas in Hinduism Part 1, Part2, Part 3) may help the readers to trace the source and read the gitas to improve their knowledge on Brahman.

DIFFERENT GITAS IN HINDUISM – PART 2 (GITAS FROM SRIMAD BHAGAVATA)

In my last article I shared with you the different gitas from Mahabarata.  In this article, I would like to share with you the different gitas from Srimad Bhagavata.  Srimad Bhagavata is one among the eighteen puranas.  It is a very famous purana written by Sage Vyasa.  It has twelve skandas.  I would like to view Srimad Bhagavata as a philosophical work drenched in Bhakti.  There are seventeen gitas in Srimad Bhagavata and I would like to give a gist of them so that it may help anyone to trace the source and refer to them to develop the spiritual knowledge.  Some special sections in Srimad Bhagavata are traditionally considered as gita.  It may not be in the format of gita, still it is considered as gita.

1.  Bharata Gita – Bharata Gita comes in the fifth skanda (chapters 11- 14).  The teaching of Sage Bharata to king Rahuguna is Bharata Gita.  Bharata is the son of king Rishaba; after whom this land is name as Bharata.  The teaching of Sage Bharata is to control the mind, senses and to have love towards the Lord.

2.  Bhikshu Gita – Bhikshu Gita comes in the eleventh skanda (Chapter 23).  It is a dialogue between Sage Suka dev and king Parikshit.  Its core content is advaita vedanta.  It is a story of a poor Brahmin from a place called Avanti who realizes the truth, after much suffering in life.

3.  Gopi gitas 

There are a set of six gitas in the tenth skanda which are famously said as Gopi Gitas.  They are different hymns of the Vraja Gopis, which are deep in emotion, pure selfless and divine love towards Lord Krishna.  They are the

  1.  Venu Gita – When the gopis are at home during the night, they hear the flute song (venu ghana) of Lord Krishna.  When they go to work in the morning (to tend the cows in the forest), they sing in praise of the Venu ghana.  This hymn is Venu Gita (chapter 21).

  2.  Pranaya Gita – Pranaya or Prema is pure love, which is a spiritual mentality of equality and oneness of heart between two people, the lover and his beloved.  It describes that how one leaves their individuality and identifies with the other (lover).  At this stage, they feel that the prana, mana, bhuddhi, deha and vesha (costume) are identical with the other.  They do not feel any difference between them.  It is the highest state of bhakti.  The hymn praising this state of emotion is called the Pranaya Gita (chapter 29).

  3.  Gopi Gita – Gopi Gita is also a hymn by the gopis assembled on the banks of river Yamuna.  While searching for Lord Krishna, they sing about the feeling of separation from Lord Krishna.  This hymn is Gopi Gita (chapter 31).

  4.  Yugala Gita – Yugala gita is pair of verses glorifying Sri Krishna, which the gopis sing in the late afternoon to pass time.  It comes in chapter 35.

  5.  Viraha Gita – When Akrura comes to Vraja to take Sri Krishna and Balaram to Madhura city, the gopis of Vraja including Radha was saddened by the news.  They openly express their deep feeling of separation from Sri Krishna and it is Viraha Gita (chapter 39).

  6.  Bhramara Gita – After going to Madhura, Sri Krishna will sent Uddhava from Madhura to console the gopis of Vraja.  He came in the early morning to Madhura.  At that time, a gopi spotted a honey bee near Akrura.  She thinks that it is a special messenger from Sri Krishna and she laments to that honey bee about her feeling of separation from Sri Krishna.  This is Bhramara Gita (chapter 47).

4.  Kapila Gita – Kapila Gita comes in the third skanda.  Kapila gita is the teaching of Sage Kapila to his mother Devahuti.  Sage Kapila was one of the founders of Samkhya philosophy which is a dualistic philosophy.  It comes in chapter 25 – 33.

5.  Rudra Gita – It is from the fourth skanda (chapter 24).  It is also repeated in the Varaha purana.  Rudra is the pure devotion to the Supreme Being.  It is the hymn in praise of Lord Vishnu expounded by Lord Rudra.

6.  Sruti Gita – It comes in the tenth skanda (chapter 87).  Sruti Gita is the Vedas singing in praise of the ultimate reality; which means that the Vedas explain the Reality. 

7.  Rishaba Gita – It is from the fifth skanda (chapter 4, 5, 6).  It is the teaching of king Rishaba to his children about practicing good values and attaining liberation.

8.  Uddhava Gita – It is otherwise known as Hamsa Gita.  It comes in the eleventh skanda.  It has thousand verses.  It is the last discourse of Lord Krishna to his friend and devotee Uddhava.  It is very deep in philosophy like Bhagavad Gita.

9.  Aila Gita – It comes in the eleventh skanda.  It is the story of king Pururuva (also known as Aila), which Lord Krishna says to Uddhava.  It explains how attachments to mundane life affect the spiritual development.

10.  Mahishi Gita – It comes in the tenth skanda.(chapter 90).  The queens of Lord Krishna sing a hymn in praise of their happy moment with their husband, Lord Krishna.  It is a very small gita with only ten verses.

11.  Bhumi Gita – It comes in the twelfth skanda (chapter 3).  It is a song by mother earth (Bhumi Devi), who laments that how foolish the rulers are that they conquer a part of the land and think that they have conquered the earth and they themselves are sentient being; what to say about their achievements.

12.  Jayanteya Gita – It comes in the eleventh skanda (chapter 2-5).  It is famously known as Nimi-Navayogi samvada.  It is a dialogue between king Nimi and the navayogis (the nine yogis who are the sons of king Rishaba and queen Jayanti).  It describes the different steps to reach liberation.

These are the different gitas in Srimad Bhagavata.  Some are deep in philosophy, some are deep in the emotion of divine love, and some are deep in the emotion of bhakti.  They all are helpful for one’s inspiration and enlightenment.